Новини - литература и периодика - Архив 2019г.

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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 08 фев 2019, 18:00

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1. The Horror of the Fire Raid - 2019-02-08 09:43:01
In today's blog post, Mark Lardas joins us once again, this time exploring the firebombing raids against Japan in the 1940s. The bombing raids are the focus of his new book Japan 1944–45, which examines the air campaign that incinerated Japan's cities.
The B-29 campaign against Japan is best known for its firebombing raids. Most people today picture the raids with the heavens filled with dozens of Superfortresses raining fire on a city. Not in formation, but loosely spread across the night sky. I remember such a painting on the cover of the first book I read about the campaign, back in the 1960s, while still a youngster.
I assumed it had to be true. The men who flew those missions were then in their forties to sixties. Most who survived the war were still alive. Surely they would object if that cover was wrong. Except those men either did not object or were ignored. Maybe the European fire-bombing raids were like that, but the raids on Japan were much different – yet possibly even more horrifying.

Изображение
Night raid over Akashi, 7 July 1945. Featured in Japan 1944–45.
Artwork by Paul Wright.
There were never dozens of aircraft over a city simultaneously. Even during the fire raid on Tokyo on March 9/10 there were unlikely to have been more than six over the city at one time. A more typical number would have been two or three.
The reason lies in the nature of the nighttime fire raids. Wings fly in formation as they did for the daytime raids. Each aircraft took off, heading individually for the target. Aircraft arrived over the target spaced at the takeoff intervals. Since B-29s cruised at 290 miles per hour, a 30-second to 45-second interval between takeoffs spaced bombers 2½ to 4 miles apart.
This allowed bombers to carry a much bigger bombload.They did not have to carry fuel to be spent circling over their airfield, waiting for every aircraft to join the formation. That fuel could be traded for extra incendiaries. Additionally, LeMay planned the aircraft to come in at low levels – 4,900 to 9,200 feet, further reducing fuel load. Aircraft did not spend fuel climbing to 30,000 feet. They also burned less fuel cruising at 10,000 feet instead of 30,000 feet. Still more incendiaries could replace the weight of unneeded fuel.

Изображение
Incendiary Bomb (Greg Kenny, Palm Springs Air Museum)
That meant fire raids lasted one hour to two hours. Instead of a wave of fire from the sky, a trickle came down. First one Superfortress drops a load of incendiaries. That first plane, a pathfinder, carried 60-odd M-47 bombs, napalm-filled 115-pound M-47s. That one B-29 would start several dozen major fires. Thirty to sixty seconds later, the next pathfinder drops its bombs in an unlit part of the city near the first set of fires. Several dozen more fires start. Then in another 30 to 60 seconds another pathfinder drops its load of M-47s. The process repeats until the pathfinders are through.
On the ground, firefighters are responding. Each fire started by an M-47 requires the attention of a fire engine. An air warden with a bucket of sand cannot extinguish a fire started by 100 pounds of napalm and white phosphorus. Tokyo had 1,117 fire engines, of which 716 were motorized pumper trucks with a pump capable of spraying 350 to 500 gallons of water per minute. It had 11 fireboats with 500-gallon pumps. The remaining fire engines were hand-drawn units capable of pumping 120 gallons per minute. At the end of ten minutes over 1,000 fires demand the attention of fire engines.
That is the beginning. Thirty seconds after the last bomber drops its load of M-47s, a B-29 carrying the six-pound M-69 incendiary drops its load. This plane carries nearly 1,000 M-69s. Each cluster scatters over an acre, 43,500 square feet – or an average of one M-69 every 43 square feet. Some land on pavement or dirt. But 50 percent of the Akuza area, the target of the raid, is covered by roof, most of which can burn. So 500 or so of the M-69s can start fires.
M-69s can be extinguished with a bucket of sand. But how many civil defense wardens are there, and how many buckets of sand does each one have? The available manpower cannot douse all of the incendiaries before these, too, start fires requiring a fire engine to contain. But every fire engine is already committed.
And it is 30 seconds later and another B-29 drops another 1,000 M-69s. Then another. This goes on for over an hour.
This is the real horror of the fire raid. It grows drop by drop. It cannot be stopped once out of control. The uncontained fires grow and spread. Soon fire is everywhere. All that can be done is to run. The civilians on the ground cannot do anything to stop it.
Since the density of aircraft is so low, why can antiaircraft guns and night fighters not deal with the attackers? The B-29 crews believed that before the first raid. They were sure they were doomed. Tokyo had the heaviest antiaircraft defenses of any city in Japan: 500 guns. They were well laid out. But two things eliminated most of their effectiveness. The first was that the shells were fused at the height the Japanese assumed the Superfortresses were at. Their early warning radar did not give altitudes.
Previously B-29s always attacked Japan at 30,000+ feet, so shells were set to explode high. Only that first night raid came in low. The lead aircraft completely avoids flak. By the time the Japanese realize what has happened and correct their fuse settings, minutes have passed. Or tens of minutes. By then the fires are spreading, creating smoke and degrading visibility. But still, a few of the B-29s in the middle of the raid get shot down.
Then the other issue kicks in. The fires spread so fast and so broadly, communications fail. Antiaircraft fire can no longer be coordinated. The gun positions closest to the target area are overwhelmed by flames and must be abandoned.
The night fighters – with a top speed barely higher than the B-29’s cruising speed – are also at 30,000+ feet. By the time they get the word, and come down to the right altitude, most of the bombers were ahead of them. They, too, were ineffective.
Tokyo was the best defended city in Japan. Many cities, especially those smaller than Japan’s ten largest cities, had no antiaircraft guns. There were not enough to go around.
Surprisingly, the fire raids on Japan were remarkably survivable under most circumstances. The March 9/10 Tokyo raid turned into a horror which killed between 60,000 and 130,000 people due to a number of factors. The first was its unexpectedness. It was larger than any previous fire raid and it caught people off-guard. They sheltered in place, when they could have run, and once they realized their danger it was too late to outrun the flames. The wind and relatively dry weather whipped the flames into a firestorm, a phenomenon that sucks the oxygen out of the atmosphere and creates unsurvivable blast-furnace temperatures.
But a standard fire raid built slowly, drop by drop. If a healthy adult started moving when the raid started towards open ground, upwind of the bombs, they could generally get to safety. The Akashi raid, illustrated in a plate in the book, burned out 60 percent of a town with over 80,000 inhabitants. Yet only 355 people died. The town was evacuated one hour before the attack began, with one-third of the population – older adults and children – sheltering in a park north of the town.

Изображение
Bombing of Ube - Fires Started Early in Attack (US Strategic Bombing Survey)
Similarly, Ube (pictured at the beginning of the July 5 fire raid) was a town of 100,000. Despite the damage to the city shown on the US Strategic Bombing Survey map made after the war, only 230 died in the attack. In both cases an inhabitant’s home and place of work (often co-located) was gone, but at least they were alive.

Изображение
Ube Bombing Results (US Strategic Bombing Survey)
It was fine with LeMay if the population survived. He was trying to destroy Japan’s industrial capability, not kill its people, especially civilians. Once Japan’s inability to stop nighttime fire raids became obvious, he had leaflets dropped on targeted cities the day before the raid, urging civilians to evacuate. He was willing to be brutal, but glad to avoid unnecessary killing.
Read more about the campaign's objectives, its execution and aftermath in Mark Lardas's Japan 1944–45.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 09 фев 2019, 12:00

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1. NASA отлага изпитанията на Crew Dragon и Starliner - 2019-02-08 21:29:17
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NASA обяви, че отлага изпитателните полети с космическите кораби Boeing CST-100 Starliner и SpaceX Crew Dragon, с което се засилват съмненията, че апаратите няма да са готови за редовни пилотируеми полети преди края на годината.


2. Цветанов обеща в САЩ договор за F-16 до средата на годината - 2019-02-08 20:58:25
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Председателят на парламентарната група на ГЕРБ и и заместник-председател на партията Цветан Цветанов обеща в САЩ, че сделката за покупка на F-16 ще бъде подписана и ратифицирана от Народното събрание до края на годината. Това съобщиха от пресцентъра на партията.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 10 фев 2019, 12:00

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1. Половин век от първия полет на Boeing 747 - 2019-02-09 20:54:52
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Преди точно половин век, на 9 февруари 1969 г., своя първи полет изпълнява емблематичният пътнически самолет Boeing 747, който е известен и с прозвището си Jumbo Jet.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 11 фев 2019, 18:00

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1. Frostgrave: The Wizards' Conclave Flipthrough! - 2019-02-11 11:00:09
Wizards tend to be secretive and solitary, rarely sharing their knowledge, and associating with only a select few apprentices, followers, and henchmen. It is rare that they spend time in the company of other spellcasters, and rarer still that they work together. Now, however, something is about to take place that has not occurred since the great days of Felstad - a gathering of wizards.
Ash Barker, author of Last Days: Zombie Apocalypse and creator of the incredibly popular Guerrilla Miniatures Games YouTube channel, flips through Frostgrave: The Wizards Conclave. The book brings a host of new scenarios to the Frozen City from some of the most well-known wargame writers out there, including Ash himself! Check out the video below for more details.

Want to bring these adventures to your tabletop? Frostgrave: The Wizards' Conclave comes out on 21 February - preorder your copy today!
For more updates from Ash, including news, reviews, and some fantastic battle reports, be sure to


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 12 фев 2019, 12:00

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1. Унгария отново се опитва да продаде своите МиГ-29 - 2019-02-11 20:49:52
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Унгарското МО стартира процедура за продажба на свалените от въоръжение изтребители МиГ-29. За продажна са пуснати общо 19 машини. Това съобщава Jane’s.


2. Embraer обяви доставките си за 2018 г. - 2019-02-11 20:19:12
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Бразилският самолетостроител Embraer обяви, че през миналата 2018 г. е доставил 90 пътнически самолета и 91 бизнесджета. Що се отнася до доставките на пътнически машини, те са в рамките на очакваните, но на крайните клиенти са дадени по-малко от планираните бизнесджетове.


3. Подробности за катастрофата с египетски Rafale - 2019-02-11 19:18:18
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Египетските ВВС със сигурност са загубили Rafale EM в катастрофа, която е станала факт на 28 януари 2019 г. Това пише френското издание Mediapart. Египет, обаче отрича да е имало инцидент с Rafale.


4. Индия получи първите си CH-47 Chinook - 2019-02-11 18:46:18
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Индийските ВВС получиха своите първи четири тежки транспортни вертолети 15 Boeing CH-47F Chinook. Машините са пристигнали в Индия вчера, 10 февруари 2019 г.


5. Стартира пролетната кампания за набиране на ръководители на въздушното движение - 2019-02-11 14:55:10
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Пролетната кампания за набиране на кандидати за Ръководител на полети в ДП РВД започва от днес, 11 февруари 2019 г. и ще приключи на 30 април 2019 г. Кампанията ще се отличава с улеснен прием на документи, съобщават от РВД.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 13 фев 2019, 12:00

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1. Финландия получи първоначални оферти за замяна на F/A-18C/D - 2019-02-12 21:45:30
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Финландското МО получи на 31 януари 2019 г. първоначалните оферти от петима производители, които са кандидати за доставка на нов многоцелев изтребител, който да замени сега използваните F/A-18C/D Hornet. Проектът се нарича H-X.


2. Китай разработва два нискозабележими ударни самолета - 2019-02-12 21:21:56
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Китай разработва паралелно нискозабележим стратегически бомбардировач, така и тактически ударен самолет. Това се казва в публичен доклад на американско военно разузнаване DIA.


3. PC-9M борд 665 се върна след основен ремонт в Швейцария - 2019-02-12 19:48:11
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Турбовитловият учебно-тренировъчен самолет Pilatus PC-9M с борден номер 665 се завърна днес, 12 февруари 2019 г., след основен ремонт в Швейцария. Машината беше тежко повредена при аварийно кацане през ноември 2010 г.


4. Стартират законови промени заради концесията на летище София - 2019-02-12 14:48:13
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Министерство на транспортна инициира промени в Закона за концесиите с цел разширяване на кръга от потенциални кандидати за концесията на летище София. Предложенията на транспортното ведомство са качени на сайта strategy.bg за обществено обсъждане.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 13 фев 2019, 18:00

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1. Kulikovo, 1380: A Battle Almost Lost in Myth - 2019-02-13 15:17:00
The Battle of Kulikovo's origin lies in the Mongols' conquest of the divided principalities and city states of the Rus' in the 13th century. As the famed 'Mongol Yoke' loosened, Grand Prince Dimitri of Moscow saw an opportunity to rebel. On 7 September 1380, his 60,000 troops crossed the Don to take the battle to Mamai's 125,000.
In today's blog post, Kulikovo 1380 author, Mark Galeotti, writes about how this relatively unknown battle to the west has become mythologised in Russia and utilised for political purposes, telling the story of how a daring Russian force defeated the military superpower of the day.
Many battles become myths, and often the mythmaking begins even before the last shot is fired or the last casualty buried. Some – from Agincourt and Gettysburg to Stalingrad and Thermopylae – become especially powerful as symbols of a nation, a movement, or an era. The battle of Kulikovo, fought in 1380 between an alliance of Russian principalities under Moscow’s Prince Dmitry, and the forces commanded by Mongol-Tatar potentate Mamai, may not be especially well-known in the West, but has over the years become successively more central to a legitimating myth begun by the princes of Moscow and since adopted by Vladimir Putin.
Go to the glitzy, high-tech Rossiya – moya istoriya (‘Russia – my history’) pavilion in Moscow’s Economic Achievements Exhibition park, and you’ll be treated to a version of history that draws a very simple, straight line. Russia was divided, and so it was vulnerable to the Mongol invasion which conquered it in the thirteenth century. At Kulikovo, Russians came together and so could break the power of the Mongol ‘Golden Horde’ and begin to create a strong, unified state. Moscow led that effort, and Moscow is thus, as it has always been, the beating heart and keen mind of Russia.
It’s compelling, it’s clear. One tiny problem: at best it’s a massive over-simplification, at worst it’s laden with lies.

Изображение
Dmitriy Donskoi and the defeated warrior of the Golden Horde depicted on the Millennium Monument in Novgorod
To be sure, the fact that Russia was an archipelago of often-feuding principalities when the Mongols came hardly helped, with city-states generally submitting or being razed one by one. However, it is unlikely that even a unified Russia could have resisted the Mongols at the peak of their power. Rather, more cities would have suffered the fate of Kiev, sacked and burned, its fields scattered with the bones of its people.
More to the point, before Moscow gets the credit for being the champion of Russian nationalism, it is worth wondering just how what had been an insignificant township before the Mongols came was able to become the hub of the Rus’ peoples. The answer is that its Ryurikid dynasty, making up with cunning and efficiency what they lacked in power and money, became in many ways the Mongols’ chief quislings, the Russians willing to collect the taxes and police the principalities in the name of the khans. The Mongols, after all, saw themselves as conquerors, not administrators, and so long as the princes paid homage to them, and the silver kept flowing to their capital at Sarai, were happy to let the Ryurikids prosper as their agents.
Over time, Moscow would extend its authority amongst the Russian principalities, and the Mongol-Tatar star would begin to wane. Arguably Prince Dmitry’s real brilliance was to spot the moment when the conquerors were divided and in decline and launch a rebellion that was intended as much as anything else to reinvent Moscow: what had been the capital of collaboration would become the vanguard of patriotic revival.
Prince Dmitry was as able a politician as a strategist. He assembled an army of allies and clients and brought chroniclers with him, as well as foreign merchants, who would be able to spread the news of his victory. And after that victory, everyone from other princes to the Russian Church was eager to get in on it, to present it as a titanic clash, a civilizational collision, a divine triumph of piety over paganism.
And so the story grew. That more than half a million soldiers clashed at Kulikovo (that would have virtually depopulated urban Russia). That the power of the Golden Horde was broken that day. That angels turned the tide of battle for the Russians. That Dmitry himself fell exhausted, surrounded by the bodies of Mongol-Tatar warriors he had killed.

Изображение
Russian cavalryman, from 2015 re-enactment of the battle at its original site
© Petr Shelomovskiy
But where did the stories end and real history begin? What made working on this book at times exasperating and at times especially fascinating was the detective work involved, sorting through centuries of (largely Russian) chronicles, and the successive layers of myth and misunderstanding they embodied, and triangulating them against other accounts, archaeological evidence, and downright common sense.
Was there even a battle? There is a battle site, now marked with a striking museum, but time and human activity have left little of the woods that were so crucial in determining the course of the battle. Acidic soils, generations of looting, and extensive farming using corrosive fertilisers in the Soviet era left few archaeological finds as proof. Thus there have been all kinds of theories, from the plausible to the nonsensical, ranging from the suggestion that the battle never happened, to ingeniously bizarre speculation that places the entire campaign within Moscow city limits, not 300 kilometres to the south.
Nonetheless, it is possible to correlate accounts of the time with the geography, and more finds were discovered to the south, where so many of Mamai’s men drowned trying to force the river Mecha when they were routed. It is not always so easy piecing through centuries of chronicles, most written by churchmen with no military knowledge and more interested in finding improving religious parallels. At the same time, though, one cannot ignore accounts written decades, even centuries later, as some were likely based on lost contemporary ones, or the oral histories of men who fought there.
But what emerges is a story that is in many ways much more interesting than the simplistic official line. Dmitry’s forces were mainly Russians, although they included some allied Lithuanians and even some Russified Tatars. Several Russian principalities refused to join him, though, mistrusting his motives or his chances. Against them, Mamai assembled a force of Mongol-Tatars but also all kinds of allies and tributaries, from Armenian archers to Genoese mercenaries hired from their trading ports in Crimea. He was also expecting troops from Lithuania and from the Russian city-state of Ryazan, neither of which arrived in time for the battle. This was not a straightforward battle of Russians versus Mongols.
As it was, it was a terribly close-run and bloody battle, one Dmitry would likely have lost were Mamai a better general and he a less cunning commander. By hiding some of his best heavy cavalry in a wood to the flank of the battlefield, he was able to turn imminent disaster into victory at the eleventh hour. Mamai was able to flee but was later murdered by the Genoese, both to appease his successor and avenge the way he bought his escape with the lives of his Genoese bodyguards.
Even so, this was not the end of Mongol rule. Mamai’s rival and successor, Tokhtamysh, would launch a punitive invasion in 1382 that would see Moscow burned and Dmitry forced to reaffirm his allegiance. The Russians would have to continue to pay homage off and on for another century. But the myth of Russians united, throwing off the ‘Mongol Yoke’ against terrible odds, proved irresistible, and Dmitry – who acquired the epithet Donskoi, ‘of the Don’, to celebrate his victory – and his successors used it to the fullest, not least to wipe away the memory of their previous collaboration.
Through history, the layers of mythology have accumulated. In the First World War, tsarist Russia mobilised it to try and inspire a war-weary people to unite and fight. More recently, Kulikovo has become part of Vladimir Putin’s campaign to assert Russia’s historical claims to great power status. An official school textbook adopted in 2013 says this was when ’the light of freedom began to dawn‘ as ’victory on the field of Kulikovo roused the national awareness of the Russian people.’ The church has also got into the act: Prince Dmitry was made a saint, and in 2005, Alexy II, Patriarch of Moscow, declared a jubilee year to commemorate the 625th anniversary of Kulikovo, which he called the battle that ’saved the nations of Europe by shielding them from the threat of foreign invasion.’ With the largest submarine in active service anywhere in the world being the nuclear missile boat the TK-208 Dmitry Donskoy, with the 51st Guards Airborne Regiment of Russia’s 106th Air Assault Division being named for the prince, too, and with an elite commando unit of the National Guard being named after Peresvet, a warrior-monk champion meant to have led his army into battle, it is clear that even if the real history of the battle is arguably more exciting and interesting, the official version is very much in control in Russia.
To read more on this fascinating topic, pre-order your copy of Kulikovo 1380, publishing 21 February.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 14 фев 2019, 12:00

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1. Гърция взима четири MH-60R Seahawk - 2019-02-13 21:47:40
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Гърция ще вземе четири многоцелеви морски вертолета MH-60R Seahawk. Това стана ясно от изявление на гръцкото МО направено на 12 февруари 2019 г.


2. Индия ще купува още МиГ-29 от Русия - 2019-02-13 21:20:58
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Индия има намерение да купи 21 изтребителя МиГ-29 от Русия и след това да ги модернизира до стандарта UPG. Това съобщава индийският вестник The Economic Times, позовавайки се на собствени източници.


3. EASA приключи първия етап от сертификационните изпитания на МС-21 - 2019-02-13 20:47:20
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Европейската агенция за авиационна безопасност EASA приключи първия етап от сертификационните изпитания на новия руски пътнически самолет МС-21. В техните рамки се оценява управляемостта на самолета в различни режими на полет.


4. Airbus очаква нови германски поръчки за Eurofighter - 2019-02-13 14:49:47
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Airbus Defense and Space очаква в скоро време допълнителни поръчки от Германия за Eurofighter и разчита на повече инвестиции в европейските отбранителни компании. Това заявява изпълнителният директор на компанията Дирк Хоке в интервю за германския вестник Handelsblatt.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 15 фев 2019, 12:00

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1. Airbus ще сглобява 63 броя месечно от семейството A320 през 2021 г. - 2019-02-14 22:00:00
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Европейският самолетостроител Airbus се готви да увеличи темпа на сглобяване на самолетите от семейството A320 до 63 месечно през 2021 г. Това съобщиха от компанията днес, 14 февруари 2019 г.


2. Airbus прекратява програмата A380 - 2019-02-14 15:31:35
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Европейският самолетостроител Airbus обяви днес, 14 февруари 2019 г., че спира програмата A380, а последният четиридвигателен гигант ще бъде доставен през 2021 г.


3. РВД организира дни на отворените врати - 2019-02-14 14:24:48
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В рамките на един месец ДП РВД ще организира три пъти „Дни на отворени врати“. Те ще се състоят съответно на 25 февруари, 7 март и 29 март 2019 г. Това съобщават от държавното предприятие.


4. Lockheed Martin се похвали, че новият завод за F-16 е почти готов - 2019-02-14 13:52:55
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Новият завод на Lockheed Martin в Грийнвил, Южна Каролина (на снимката), в който ще се възстанови производството на F-16 е вече почти завършен. Това се казва в съобщение на компанията до медиите, което бе разпространено днес, 14 февруари 2019 г.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 15 фев 2019, 18:00

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1. Judge Dredd: The Cursed Earth - All the promo cards! - 2019-02-15 12:00:33
Judge Dredd: The Cursed Earth comes out in just under a week, giving players the chance to bring justice to the irradiated wasteland. There are a few promo cards out there that players can get their hands on, so we just wanted to make sure you all know exactly how to get them.
Judge Dredd: The Cursed Earth Adventure Card Promos

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Preorder your copy of Judge Dredd: The Cursed Earth from the Osprey Games webstore before the 21st February, or buy your copy from your local gamestore, to bring three new adventure cards to the game - Belisha Beck, Yassa Povey, and Crustacia.
Please check with your local game store to be sure they will be providing the promos. Orders from the Osprey Games website will receive their promo pack as a separate package after 21st February. Head over to the preorder blog for more details.
Chief Judge Hershey alt-art Character Card

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This alt-art character card is available with copies of issue 28 of Tabletop Gaming Magazine, on sale from the 21st February. The magazine will soon be available on the Tabletop Gaming Magazine website.
Spikes Harvey Rotten and Tweak alt-art Character Cards

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These two are no strangers to the Cursed Earth, and can be used to replace Judges Giant and Anderson in your games of The Cursed Earth. They can be found in Issue 405 of the Judge Dredd Megazine, on sale from the 20th February. The Megazine will soon be available on the 2000 AD website.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 16 фев 2019, 12:00

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1. L-410 поднови полетите си у нас - 2019-02-15 21:48:08
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На 14 февруари 2019 г. се изпълни полет за летателно приемане на самолет L-410 с борден номер 068 от състава на 16-та транспортна авиационна група. Това съобщиха от ВВС.


2. Валидираха пощенска марка по случай 50-годишнината на РВД - 2019-02-15 21:37:52
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Пощенска марка по случай 50-годишнината на ДП РВД беше валидирана днес, 15 февруари 2019 г., от министъра на транспорта Росен Желязков, зам.-министъра Димитър Геновски, Генералния директор на РВД Георги Пеев и главния изпълнителен директор на „Български пощи“ Деян Дънешки.


3. Министър Каракачанов обеща договор за F-16 до края на юни - 2019-02-15 20:54:33
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До края на юни е възможно да има подписан договор за придобиването на F-16. Това заяви днес, 15 февруари 2019 г., пред журналисти военният министър Красимир Каракачанов, който участва в Конференция по сигурността в Мюнхен.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 18 фев 2019, 18:00

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1. Ash Barker: Writing for Frostgrave: The Wizards' Conclave - 2019-02-18 09:47:50
Frostgrave: The Wizards' Conclave is the latest supplement to the best-selling fantasy wargame by Joseph A. McCullough, bringing a host of talented wargames designers to the frozen ruins of Felstad. On the blog today we have one such designer - Ash Barker - talking about the mini-campaign he wrote for the book.

Two things happened in 2015 that led to me contributing to this book. The first was, I began a YouTube channel in June of that year. Then in July Joe published Frostgrave. While both of those things might have seemed innocuous at the time I doubt either of us foresaw what a huge and consuming part of our lives they’d become.
I played my first game of Frostgrave that autumn, with snow starting to (appropriately) arrive in my part of Canada. I’d been receiving messages from various viewers that if I liked skirmish games there was a new one from Osprey that I should give a look. As is my way I grabbed a couple of copies of the rulebook, badgered some friends into preparing models and set about combing through it to find out what I needed to assemble in the way of terrain and other accessories in order to play.

Check out the full Frostgrave playlist from Guerrilla Miniature Games
That first video we recorded has been watched almost 50,000 times since then. In the years since we produced another thirty games and all-told people have watched us play Frostgrave over 250,000 times.
Suffice it to say we enjoyed the game a great deal. Noble and evil deeds were done. Great monsters were defeated and numerous wizards rose and fell in the course of those storied campaigns. A great Liche was cast down and his usurper failed to ascend to Lichedom herself, instead plummeting from the ancient evil’s Sky Castle spitting curses as the rest of us made our escape. Dark and deadly dungeons were explored and pacts made with terrible powers from beyond the veil.
For me Frostgrave married all that was best and most fun about role playing games with my real passion, creating a visual narrative on the tabletop with great models, terrain and friends. It has been a top-shelf game for the entirety of my four years creating Video content and I see no sign of us ever leaving the Frozen City for good.
I was deeply flattered to have Joe ask me to contribute to the Wizards' Conclave and not a bit intimidated by the idea of having something in print. Ironically I think I submitted my final draft of The Blade of Barael before my final work was done on my own first Wargaming publication (Last Days: Zombie Apocalypse) so while it came out afterwards I think it might have been completed first!
Joe’s deep and detailed instructions basically amounted to ‘Have fun and write something you’d enjoy!’. I struggled with this a bit as for me, the best parts of Frostgrave are always the connective tissue; what happens when a story progresses rather than just the action of a single encounter. So as I hadn’t been specifically been told NOT to write a short campaign... I decided to stop trying to fit all my ideas into one encounter and just write a short campaign. I suspect Joe will have me sign some kind of binding form in triplicate next time we collaborate.
I get ideas for encounters from all over. Sometimes I’ll watch a movie (even in an unrelated genre) and it will spark something. Sometimes reading a book, or just driving down the road listening to music. There’s always some moment however when you hear some combination of words or see something and it just gets you into a creative headspace.
I have always been drawn to darker, low Fantasy settings. The art of Frank Frazetta drew me to many an issue of Heavy Metal magazine as a kid and I was more into Robert E Howard’s Conan than I was to lighter Fantasy books as a kid. The idea that one of the most powerful figures in Felstad might not have been entirely good and may have even been a bit of a warmonger appealed to me. I also liked the idea of the common-folk of today having Myths they might not even know are related to the Frozen City. It could be that through the great Thaw there is some truth to be revealed in something as simple as a crumbling ancient Aviary.

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Artwork for The Blade of Barael by Kate and Dmitry Burmak

While the mini-series is only three games long, I was entertained with my own imaginings all through writing it of what ancient deeds those companions might performed and how traces of them could be left behind. The Shards of Darkness littering the aviary are just the detritus of the Crow-Mage’s forging process. They are literal garbage of another time. But they also represented clues to happenings from millennia earlier that the Wizards would be desperate to follow.
Having a villain was also important to me, but I wanted that villain to be conflicted. Not all monsters are evil and while the Half-Breed might be utterly insane he is not particularly malicious. He is simply seeking release from his eternal agony by quenching the unholy light inside of him with the Shards of Darkness.
I hope people enjoy their little trip to my corner of Felstad. It’s a dark and gloomy corner and I wouldn’t particularly recommend spending the night there... but the rewards might just be worth it.
While I’m pretty satisfied with the overall result of my contribution to the book, I’m absolutely blown away by the art. Dmitry and Kate Burmak have created some absolutely fantastic interior pieces to compliment the cover and I can’t wait for people to get their hands on them.
Big thanks to Joe for the invitation to jump into his world and muck around a bit. I would say I hope I didn’t leave too many boot marks in the snow, but let’s be honest... I actually rolled around making snow-angels.
Frostgrave: The Wizards' Conclave is the latest supplement to the best-selling fantasy wargame, bringing a host of new scenarios to the Frozen City. Order your copy today!


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 19 фев 2019, 12:00

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1. Безмер с нов командир - 2019-02-18 15:11:38
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Днес, 18 февруари 2019 г. в Базата за предно разполагане – Безмер се проведе тържествена церемония по смяна на командването. Досегашният командир на военното формирование полковник Валентин Иванов сдаде длъжността на своя заместник подполковник Милен Димитров. Това съобщават от ВВС.


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 19 фев 2019, 18:00

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1. On Blackbeard’s Trail - 2019-02-19 12:26:00
Angus Konstam, the author of The Pirate World, has spent half a lifetime researching the life and times of Edward Teach, better known as Blackbeard. Here he explains why this new book gave him the chance to bring this infamous pirate’s story bang up to date.
It seems like I’ve been on Blackbeard’s trail for ever. I first came across him as a kid, when one Christmas an aunt gave me The Eagle Book of Pirates. This children’s book had me hooked, but of all the pirates it described, it was Blackbeard who fascinated me most of all. It was his appearance, and even this short account of his exploits had me enthralled. Now, speed the clock forward a few decades to 2008. That was when my biography of him came out. Blackbeard: America’s Most Notorious Pirate (2008) was published by John Wiley & Sons, a US publishing house. It took me a year to write, but it was well worth it. The result was a readable biography of the pirate, which also put him firmly in the middle of the early 18th-century world he lived in. At the time it represented the latest word in Blackbeard research.

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Blackbeard traded on his ferocious appearance to intimidate his victims.
This look is perfectly captured in this depiction by Frank Schoonover.
The thing is, though, history keeps changing. New information keeps coming up, and this can have an impact on the tale you’ve told. After all, history is a subjective thing, and is really little more than the known facts interpreted by someone who provides his own slant on what happened. That, though, is just their take on the past. For example, think of a football match. The game might be seen by tens of thousands of spectators, and more watched it on television, but every one of them will have their own angle on what they saw. History works in much the same way. In fact, a historian needs to have some of the skills of a detective to piece together the often contradictory bits of evidence, or to read between the lines in official reports. The reward is an occasional Eureka! moment, when suddenly things make sense.

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Queen Anne's Revenge was originally a French slave ship called La Concord, built in Nantes. She probably looked very much like this. After capturing her in late 1717, Blackbeard converted her into a 40-gun pirate flagship.
So a decade ago, when I wrote my biography of Blackbeard, I drew on all the historical information I could find. This included the discovery of a shipwreck suspected to be that of Blackbeard’s pirate ship, the Queen Anne’s Revenge, which was deliberately wrecked off the coast of North Carolina in 1718. The wreck was discovered again in 1996, and since then the site has been excavated by a team of underwater archaeologists. Every year more information from the wreck comes to light as objects are recovered and painstakingly conserved. The result is a sort of piratical time capsule, whisking us back to the world of Blackbeard and his shipmates. So since my Blackbeard book came out, a lot of exciting new archaeological information has appeared. Consequently, for The Pirate World, I was able to draw on another whole decade of archaeological discoveries.
For instance, it has now been proved beyond any reasonable doubt that the shipwreck is the Queen Anne’s Revenge. We’ve also learned much more about the ship itself, and its polyglot armament of British, French and Swedish guns. Inside one of them, the archaeologists even found a scrap of paper that turned out to be part of a page from a book describing a privateering voyage around the world. It might even have been part of Blackbeard’s own personal library – we know pirates looted such books, along with charts and pilot books, to help them navigate. Then there were the personal finds, like medical tools, pocket watches and navigating devices, which give us an idea of what else Blackbeard and his men looted from their victims. It all helps to build up a better picture of life on board a pirate ship.
The other thing that has changed in the past decade is the history itself. What I mean is, when I wrote the Blackbeard biography, I described his activities using all of the historical clues I could find. These included the depositions – crime reports if you will – of his victims, letters from colonial governors or naval officers or city officials, or even ones between merchants. Then there were the newspaper reports, the transcripts of pirate trials, and even maritime insurance records. It all helped to build up a good picture of what Blackbeard got up to, particularly during his piratical cruises between 1716 and 1718. In the past decade, though, more of these little historical nuggets have come to light. So we now have a better idea of what Blackbeard got up to and who his victims were. As a historian, there’s nothing better than to have the gaps filled in by this kind of priceless information.
Another thing that has changed in the past few years is the idea that Blackbeard was born in Bristol. The thing about pirates is that their background is often obscure – they only appear on the historical radar when they embark on their life of crime. The Bristol connection stems from Captain Charles Johnson’s A General History of the Pyrates, published in 1726. He wrote that Blackbeard was a Bristol man who landed up working as a privateer based in Jamaica. Until recently that was the best clue we had. I’ve combed the local archives for any reference to Teach, Tatch or any variation on the name – early 18th-century spelling was often pretty fluid. I couldn’t find anything to support the Bristol connection, apart from a Thatch who was a merchant. However, I found a few Thatches and Teaches in nearby Gloucester, which was just up the River Severn a bit from Bristol.

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Blackbeard poised to board the hired naval sloop Jane, commanded by Lt. Maynard of the Royal Navy.
This turned out to be Blackbeard's last fight.
Then a genealogist from North Carolina came up with a Jamaica connection. He argued that Edward Tache had been born in England, but his parents emigrated to Kingston, Jamaica when he was a toddler. Tache later appeared as a volunteer on a British warship, based in nearby Port Royal, but only stayed on its books for a year or so. Could this be Edward Teach – our Blackbeard? The genealogist thinks so, and his circumstantial evidence certainly points that way. He even came up with a connection in Gloucestershire, as that’s where the family moved from after young Edward was born. However, another journalist and local historian from North Carolina remains convinced that Blackbeard hailed from Bath, North Carolina. Here the connection is pretty tenuous, and I remain unconvinced. However, anything that encourages people to delve a little deeper into Blackbeard’s past can only be a good thing.

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So when it came to writing the Blackbeard section in The Pirate World, I had a lot of new information to fit in. The result, though, is that I reckon it’s as accurate as it possibly can be, based on the information that’s out there. That, of course, doesn’t mean that in another ten years we might not find out new bits and pieces, like a birth certificate, fresh descriptions of Blackbeard by his victims, or even a letter or journal in the pirate’s own hand. We live in hope. Then there’s the Queen Anne’s Revenge, which is fast turning into one of the most important historic wreck sites in American waters. Artefacts are still coming up, and together they help paint a better picture of our pirate and his criminal activities. Finally, in writing this book I was delighted to bring everything up to date, not just for Blackbeard, but for all the other pirates who get a mention in the new book. That, as much as the beautiful maps and illustrations, is what makes The Pirate World such a special book for me.
Angus Konstam is one of the world’s leading experts on piracy, and the author of more than a hundred books. These include the award-winning Blackbeard: America’s Most Notorious Pirate, Piracy: The Complete History, The World Atlas of Piracy, and the best-selling The History of Pirates. If there’s a pirate documentary on TV, the chances are that Angus has appeared in it. A Masters graduate of St. Andrews University, during his life he’s been a naval officer, an underwater archaeologist, and a museum curator (working in both the Tower of London and Key West). He now works as a full-time author and historian, and lives in Edinburgh, Scotland.
www.anguskonstam.com


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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 20 фев 2019, 12:00

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1. МО иска да ремонтира два L-39 - 2019-02-19 14:04:11
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Министерство на отбраната стартира вчера, 18 февруари 2019 г., обществена поръчка за ремонт на два реактивни учебно-тренировъчни самолета L-39ZA. Очакваната стойност на поръчката е малко над 8,33 млн. лева без ДДС.


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