Аеро - Българското списание за авиация
1. Ил-112 изпълни първия си полет - 2019-03-30 20:44:02
Тактическият военно-транспортен самолет Ил-112В изпълни дебютния си полет. Това стана днес, 30 март 2019 г.
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Publishing in May 2019, Ragnarok is a campaign-driven skirmish game of heavy metal combat in the Viking Age. Players form Viking War Clans and must prove themselves worthy of becoming the new pantheon, developing their group over multiple games as they claw their way up from ruin to stand before the halls of Valhalla.
So what do you need other than the rulebook to bring Ragnarok to your tabletop? Miniatures
Miniatures are, by far, the most important part of the wargaming hobby. Typically made from metal, resin, or plastic, you use these toy soldiers to represent the various members of your War Clan and the creatures they face in the Fractured Realms. Hundreds of companies make miniatures, any of which can work quite well for Ragnarok. There are photos of painted miniatures throughout the book, to give you a glimpse of this exciting world. All entries list the model company represented in the photo.
For Ragnarok, your starting War Clans consist of humans. Eventually, your War Clans face giants, wolves, and other fantastic beasts of legend in various sizes. The typical heroic miniature scale is 28-32mm. While the game does not require that you have exact models, players should try to use models that best represent the armor, weapons, and special gear their warriors carry. The goal is for all players to agree which models represent which War Clan members.
To help you get your War Clan started, take a look at the War Clan Creation section of the rulebook, which you can take a look at here! Dice
As with all Morpheus Engine games, you need only two, six-sided dice (2D6) and one eight-sided die (1D8). The D8 is for special situations, such as scattering area of effect attacks.
Most actions in the Morpheus Engine require that you roll dice to complete tasks, such as attacking other models. The Battlefield
Typically, a two-player game of Ragnarok is played on a 3’ x 3’ square table. For multi-player games, you can increase the table size to 4’ x 4’ to allow each War Clan a bit more room to maneuver (unless you want to keep the action up-close and bloody from the start). In extreme cases (such as games with 5+ players), you can increase the table size to 6’ x 4’ to clash in a grand battle and acquire as much Glory as possible! Terrain
Artwork by RU-MOR
As with many skirmish wargames, having plenty of terrain on the table is not only beneficial to game play, it is visually pleasing, as well. It does not matter whether your terrain is store-bought, built from scratch, or a collection of various pieces. You can use many different types of terrain in the Fractured Realms of Ragnarok, the most common of which are forests, large trees, hills, rocky outcroppings, ruined buildings, and crumbled walls. Tape measure, tokens, counters, etc.
Morpheus Engine games are measured in inches, so you need a tape measure or similar device to measure distances while playing. You also need different tokens and counters to represent current model health, status effects, and the like.
Ragnarok: Heavy Metal Combat in the Viking Age will be available from 30 May 2019. Order your copy today!
This month the book vote looks at the Duel series, with five books focussed on aerial combat battling for your vote. Find out more about them in the descriptions below, and then let us know which one you'd be most interested in!
Also, keep reading for the results of last month's Air Campaign book vote.
DUE: Bf 109 vs I-16:Spain 1937-39
DUE: Spitfire V/IX vs Fw 190A: Channel Front 1942-44 DUE: B-29 vs Japanese Nightfighter: Home Islands 1944-45
DUE: UH-1 Huey Gunship vs NVA/Viet Cong: 1965-73
DUE: RAF Coastal Command vs Ju 88: Atlantic 1941-45
Bf 109 vs I-16: Spain 1937-39
The Condor Legion blooded the soon-to-be famous Bf 109 in combat during the Spanish Civil War, a small number of Messerschmitts taking on the Soviet-supplied I-16 Ratas of the Republican air force
Spitfire V/IX vs Fw 190A: Channel Front 1942-44
The appearance of the outstanding Fw 190A in France in late 1941 spurred the RAF on into developing the best Merlin-engined Spitfire of World War 2, the Mk IX. The latter type, ably supported by the Spitfire V, took the fight to the Luftwaffe during fighter sweeps and bomber escort missions from Dieppe to D-Day
B-29 vs Japanese Nightfighter: Home Islands 1944-45
The USAAF’s most advanced bomber of World War 2 took the long-range fight to Japan’s Home Islands from late 1944, mounting devastating raids on key cities. These attacks took place around the clock, and both the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force and Imperial Janpanese Navy employed all manner of fighter types to try and repel these aircraft at night, with only modest success
UH-1 Huey Gunship vs NVA/Viet Cong: 1965-73
The ubiquitous UH-1 Huey helicopter was used in many roles during the long-running Vietnam War, one of which was as a dedicated gunship escort for troop-carrying ‘slick’ UH-1 inserting and evacuating troops in South Vietnam. These machines were heavily targeted by the North Vietnamese Army regulars and Viet Cong volunteers, using all manner of weapons
RAF Coastal Command vs Ju 88: Atlantic 1941-45
Coastal Command long-range patrol aircraft (Sunderland and Catalina flying boats and land-based Fortress Is and Liberators) routinely engaged powerfully armed Ju 88s patrolling the Western Approaches and the Bay of Biscay in search of Allied ships or escorting Fw 200 Condors. Some bloody clashes ensued, resulting in casualties on both sides
Make your vote by clicking here!
Last month we asked you what would you like to see published in our Air Campaign series. Thank you to everyone who voted and provided feedback, the full results are listed below! ACM: The Balloon Goes Up 1794–1903 17% ACM: Channel Front 1941 23% ACM: Operation Steinbock 1944 22% ACM: Libya 1981–89 12% ACM: Syria 2015-2018 26%
Did your pick win? Which Duel title have you decided to vote for? Let us know in the comments!
САЩ са прекратили доставката на оборудване за турските F-35. Това е първата по-конкретна стъпка за тоталното блокиране на доставките на самолета. Това съобщава Reuters, цитирайки собствени източници.
За втори път за последните 12 месеца, ВВС на САЩ спират полетите с бомбардировача B-1B поради проблеми с катапултните му кресла. Това съобщава Flightglobal.
Малайзия планира да стартира конкурс за придобиването на лек боен самолет, който също така да бъде използван и в качеството му на учебно-тренировъчна машина за напреднало и преходно изтребително обучение. Това е съобщил генерал Афенди Буан, командващ Кралските малайзийски ВВС, цитиран от AIN.
От днес, 1 април до 12 април 2019 г. ще се проведе основният етап от „Европейски курс за усъвършенстване на тактическата подготовка на военнотранспортната авиация” 2019-2 (ETAP-C 19-2). Това съобщават от ВВС.
Кралските ВВС официално свалиха от въоръжение изтребителя-бомбардировач Tornado GR4. Това стана на 1 април 2019 г. сутринта, когато в последните две ескадрили, които имаха самолета бяха свалени командирските флагове.
Гръцките ВВС ще извършват мисията „ер полисинг” над Македония, след присъединяването на страната в НАТО. За това са се споразумели днес, 2 април 2019 г., премиерите на Гърция и Македония.
Лек еднодвигателен самолет Cessna P210N се е разбил по-рано днес в Македония. По информация на редица македонски медии, на борда му са се намирали четирима български граждани, които са загинали.
Военновъздушните сили избраха доставчик на две системи за гасене на пожари от вертолет Bambi Bucket. Това става с решение на командира на ВВС генерал-майор Цанко Стойков от 22 март 2019 г.
Премиерът Бойко Борисов обеща Висшето военновъздушно училище (ВВВУ) в Долна Митрополия да бъде възстановено до 6 май 2019 г. Това каза той днес, 2 април, при посещението си в Долна Митрополия.
Испански военно-транспортен самолет C-295 излезе от пистата при кацане и бе повреден тежко. При инцидентът станал вчера, 3 април 2019 г., няма тежко ранени.
ВВС на САЩ отново отказаха да приемат готови летящи танкери Boeing KC-46A поради наличие на чужди предмети на борда на самолетите. Това е вторият случай в рамките на последните седмици.
Режимът MCAS в системата за управление на катастрофиралия етиопски Boeing 737 Max е бил изключен от екипажа, но след това се е задействал отново по неясни причини и е насочил самолетът към земята. Това са заявили за Reuters източници запознати с хода на разследването.
Първият сериен реактивен военно-транспортен самолет Ил-76МД-90А бе официално предаден на руските ВКС. Това е станало на официална церемония проведена вчера, 2 април 2019 г.
Изпитателните полети на космическия кораб Boeing CST-100 Starliner се отлагат с няколко месеца. Това съобщиха от NASA днес, 3 април 2019 г.
Спасителните и разследващи екипи са достигнали до останките на катастрофиралия в Македония лек самолет Cessna P210N. Потвърдена е смъртта на всички четирима намиращи се на борда, както и че те са български граждани.
Двудвигателнит военно-транспортен самолет Ил-112В ще има нужда от доработки, за да отговори на техническото задание на руското МО. Това съобщава информационната агенция „Интерфакс”, цитирайки собствени източници.
Ракетата-носител Союз-2 извърши два успешни старта в рамките един ден, като изведе товарите си на зададената орбита. Това стана днес, 4 април 2019 г.
Екипажът на катастрофиралия Boeing 737 Max на Ethiopian Airlines се е борил с управлението по времето на целия шестминутен полет, тъй като непрекъснато са идвали команди за пикиране, поради грешни данни от бордните сензори. Това показва предварителния доклад за катастрофата от 10 март 2019 г., цитирани от Reuters.
Boeing намалява темпа на сглобяване на тяснофюзелажния си модел 737 с близо 20% от средата на този месец. Това е съобщил вчера, 5 април 2019 г., изпълнителният директор на компанията Денис Мюленбърг.
Споровете за резултатите от въздушния бой между изтребители от Пакистан и Индия, който стана факт на 27 февруари 2019 г., продължават. Днес, 5 април, бяха извадени нова порция от доказателства, които влизат в противоречие едни с други.
САЩ виждат нови потенциални клиенти за F-35 на Стария континент, включително и страни от Източна Европа. Това е заявил вчера, 4 април 2019 г., вицеадмирал Матиас Уинтър, шеф на програмния офис на F-35 в Пентагона.
Днес, 5 април 2019 г., военно-транспортен самолет C-27J Spartan от състава на 16-а транспортна авиационна група изпълни специална санитарна задача по маршрут София – Горна Оряховица – София, за превоз на тежко ранена курсантка от Националния военен университет. Това съобщават от ВВС.
Румъния с гръм и трясък обяви, че ще обнови генерално вертолетния си флот, но по всичко личи, че това няма да стане много бързо. Това съобщава местното авиационно издание Aviatia Magazin.
Полша ще подпише договор с Leonardo Helicopters за покупката на тридвигателните вертолети AW101, които ще се използват от полските ВМС за борба с противникови подводници.
На 12 април 2019 г. (петък) Музеят на авиацията в Крумово, ще отбележи Международния ден на авиацията и космонавтиката с вход свободен от 9,00 до 17,00 часа и специална програма. Това съобщиха оттам.
В съответствие с План за дейността на Военновъздушните сили през учебната 2019 г. и в изпълнение на заповед на командира на ВВС на 8 и 9 април 2019 г. в Боровец се провежда учебно-методически сбор по безопасност на полетите под ръководството на генерал-майор Цанко Стойков. Това се съобщава от ВВС.
Корпусът на морската пехота на САЩ обяви, че планира да използва вертикално излитащите и кацащи AV-8B Harrier до 2028 г. Това е с две години повече от последно обявените планове.
Американският президент Доналд Тръпм заплаши, че ще наложи наказателни мита срещу пътническите самолети на европейския самолетостроител Airbus. Това обяви той днес, 9 април 2019 г., в профила си в социалната мрежа Twitter.
Изтребител F-35A от състава на японските ВВС изчезна над Тихия океан по време на тренировъчна задача. Стартирана е операция по търсене и спасяване. Това стана днес, 9 април 2019 г.
Във връзка с Международният ден на авиацията и космонавтиката и 40-ата годишнина от космическия полет на първия български космонавт Георги Иванов, на 12 април 2019 г. (петък) 16-та транспортна авиогрупа Враждебна ще отвори врати за посетители. Това съобщиха оттам.
На свое заседание днес, 10 април 2019 г., Министерският съвет прие решение за откриване на Висшето военновъздушно училище (ВВВУ) „Георги Бенковски“ в Долна Митрополия като национален устойчив образователен център за подготовка на високо професионални кадри за Военновъздушните сили (ВВС) на Република България, Европейската система за въздушен транспорт и свързаните с въздухоплаването сектори на икономиката. Това съобщиха от МО.
Японските въоръжени сили са заявили, че в Тихия океан са намерени останките от изчезналия изтребител F-35A. Те са били открити през нощта от кораби и самолети, които са издирвали машините.
Publishing on 18 April, Men of Bronze: Ancient Greek Hoplite Battles allows you to play out Classical Greek hoplite battles on the tabletop. Players are Strategoi (generals) leading phalanxes of bronze-clad warriors in pursuit of fame, glory, and the honor of their city-states. To win such prizes you must prove your mettle, display your valor, and bring the other Strategoi to their knees.
On the blog today we're taking a look back at some famous battles from history to inspire you as you prepare to lead your forces to victory! Campaign 261: Pylos and Sphacteria 425 BC by William Shepherd
Artwork by Peter Dennis The Battle on the Island: Psiloi against Hoplites
The extract below is taken from Campaign 261: Pylos and Sphacteria 425 BC by William Shepherd.
‘When the main contingent under Epitadas’ command on the island had seen that their guard post had been wiped out and that the landing force was moving towards them, they formed up and advanced towards the Athenian hoplites with the objective of engaging them in close combat. The hoplites were directly to their front while the psiloi were on their flanks and behind them. But they were unable to get to grips with the hoplites and bring their expertise to bear. The psiloi kept them in check by showering them with missiles from all sides and the Athenian hoplites stayed away from the fight, making no move to meet their advance. Whenever the psiloi came in close the Spartans drove them off, but then they would wheel and renew their attack. They were equipped for mobility and the Spartans with their heavy shields just could not catch up with them on this difficult terrain, which had never been cultivated. So, for a while, the two sides skirmished in this way but the Spartans were becoming tired and less able to dart out in response to each thrust against them.’ (Thucydides IV.33)
The Spartans, Spartiates in this section of the line, are in open order to offer a more difficult target for missile attack. Small groups, generally of the youngest and fittest hoplites in the role of ekdromoi (runners-out), dash forward like snatch-squads in modern riot-policing. Helot attendants provide support of various kinds, including fighting as psiloi. The Athenian peltasts, here mingled with the mass of the psiloi, would have had a limited supply of javelins and would only contemplate hand-to-hand contact with Greece’s finest hoplites if the prolonged skirmishing succeeded in breaking up their formation. The primary weapon for the psiloi was the rocks and stones at their feet. These had to be large enough and thrown at a range of no more than a few metres to be effective, giving the Spartan ekdromoi some opportunity to fight back.
Thucydides’ remark about ground ‘which had never been cultivated’ is a reference to the ideal conditions for hoplite combat as satirised by Mardonius when making the case for the Persian invasion of Greece. Successive Spartan invasions of Attica had failed to provoke the Athenians into overriding one of the key principles of Pericles’ war strategy and Demosthenes was not going to offer this kind of battle on Sphacteria. Some of the triremes that delivered the Athenian forces to the island at daybreak are standing off the accessible western shoreline.
Order your copy of Campaign 261: Pylos and Sphacteria 425 BC to read more about this battle! Campaign 239: Platea 479 BC by William Shepherd
Artwork by Peter Dennis ‘The most glorious victory ever known’
The extract below is taken from Campaign 239: Platea 479 BC by William Shepherd.
With the omens at last favourable, and the 1,500 Tegeans to their left already committed, the 10,000 Lacedaemonian hoplites and their light-armed support could at last go onto the offensive. The Persians put away their bows and faced up to them. At first the fighting was along the wall of shields but, when this had been knocked over, there was a hard struggle around the temple of Demeter. It went on for such a long time that, for the Greeks, it came down to othismos [shoving with shields with the front lines locked together] because the barbarians kept grabbing their spears and breaking them. The Persians were not inferior in courage or strength, but they were not armed like hoplites or trained in their way of fighting, and they did not have the tactical skill of their opponents. They were darting forward in ones and tens, gathering together in larger or smaller groups, hurling themselves at the Spartans and being wiped out. But wherever Mardonius was fighting, mounted on his charger and surrounded by his thousand picked men, the best of the Persians, there they pressed the enemy hardest. While Mardonius lived, the Persians held out and struck down many Lacedaemonians as they defended themselves. But when Mardonius was killed and the best of the army who fought alongside him had fallen, then the rest were put to flight and gave way before the Lacedaemonians. Their greatest disadvantage was the lack of armour in their equipment. They were, in effect, light-armed (gymnetes, literally ‘naked’) battling with hoplites IX.61–63 Herodotus notes with admiration that the barbarians put up a strong and courageous resistance, in spite of the disadvantages which he so clearly highlights. Othismos was an exclusive element of hoplite warfare marking the climax of conventional hoplite battles and the Greek need to adopt this tactic finally to break the Persians is testimony to their toughness as opponents, outgunned as they were. Herodotus’ respect for Mardonius is equally clear, leading from the front as all the best ancient commanders did and dying his hero’s death. Plutarch adds the detail that a Spartan called Arimnestos killed him with a rock, not a classic hoplite weapon. However, spears and swords broke in combat and then improvisation was an urgent necessity, as in the last stand at Thermopylae. Pausanias, his linothorax contrasting with his men’s bronze cuirasses, has taken his place in the line as customary for Greek generals. There is apparently no evidence for the Spartans adopting the new form of body armour before it was abandoned altogether, but it would have been consistent with the character revealed by some of his behaviour after Plataea for Pausanias to arm himself more flamboyantly. Light-armed Helots are intermingled with the hoplites, one throwing a rock, another bringing up replacement spears. A hoplite fights in the meantime with the butt end of his broken weapon as the Greeks press against the remnants of the barbarian shield wall.
To read more about this battle, take a look at Campaign 239: Plataea 479 BC. Campaign 195: Syracuse 415 – 413 BC by Nic FIelds
Artwork by Peter Dennis Night attack on Epipolai
The extract below is taken from Campaign 195: Syracuse 415–413 BC by Nic Fields.
Demosthenes saw that the third Syracusan counter-wall was the key to the whole situation. He therefore planned to seize and destroy it, take control of Epipolai, and then push on with the siege. Demosthenes ordered his men to take five days’ rations, and assembled all the stonemasons, carpenters and archers, and everything else they might require, to complete their circumvallation. Then, at what Thucydides calls ‘the first sleep’ (7.43.2), he himself, with Eurymedon and the bulk of the army, set off, leaving Nikias in the lines. Epipolai is over 100m up, exposed limestone with scrub oak, sheer on its three sides except at its apex near Euryelos in the west, where it is steep but climbable. The barren plateau topside measures some 4.5km west to east and just fewer than 3km at the waist. It was going to be a long and difficult haul. That afternoon the soldiers made the necessary preparations for the forthcoming operation, including the eating of a hot meal. Having roasted and milled their barley, the Athenian hoplites would have taken their flour and kneaded it up with a little oil and wine, using a square of sheepskin as a kneading-trough, to produce a simple form of unleavened bread (Thucydides 3.49.3, Hermippos fr. 57 Kock). The fresh dough would then be twisted around a stick and baked in the hot ashes of their camp fires. Despite Xenophon’s claim (Kyropaideia 1.2.11) that when he was truly famished even barley-bread tasted sweet, it was usually helped down with a little local wine and a wedge of cheese, with onions, garlic, olives, anchovies and thyme-flavoured salt as likely accompaniments (Thucydides 4.26.5, Aristophanes Acharnians 550-551, 1099, Knights 599, Peace 368). That night, having ascended by the hill of Euryelus unobserved by the Syracusan guards, the Athenians captured the fort there from the enemy, putting them to flight. Those fleeing managed to raise the alarm in the three camps on the heights , which were manned by Syracusans and their allies, including the Corinthians. These advanced against the Athenians, but were routed by them after a sharp resistance. Meanwhile other Athenians had taken the third counter-wall of the Syracusans. The Syracusans and their allies, together with Gylippos and the troops under his command, advanced to halt the Athenians from their outworks. The Athenians had begun to lose order in their advance, and came up against the Boiotians, whose brave stand put the Athenians to flight. Although there was a bright moon the fighting degenerated into utter confusion, with one man unable to tell friend from foe in the uncertainties of a night engagement. ‘Thus,’ as Thucydides says, ‘after being once thrown into disorder, they ended by coming into collision with each other in many parts of the field, friends with friends, and citizens with citizens, and not only terrified one another, but even came to blows and could only be parted with difficulty’ (7.44.7).
To read more, pick up a copy of Campaign 195: Syracuse 415–413 BC.
Campaign 108: Marathon 490 BC by Nicholas Sekunda
Artwork by Richard Hook The Athenian Charge Reaches the Persian Line
The extract below comes from Campaign 108: Marathon 490 BC by Nicholas Sekunda
The Persian infantry regiments were organised in a decimal system, and would have been drawn up ten ranks deep. The file of ten men (dathabam) was commanded by a decurion (dathpati?) who would stand in the front of the file armed with a spear and a pavise (spara). These troops, sparabara, drew their shields together into a shield-wall, from behind which the other nine ranks of archers in the file would shoot. All the Persians shown here are sparabarai, and all are based on the three figures of Persians show on the Oxford Brygos cup. There is a considerable amount of evidence for regimental uniform in the Achaemenid army. Consequently we have taken the opportunity to show three repeated sets of dress and equipment. In fact if the different Persian regiments were dressed uniformly one would not find the members of three different regiments mixed up like this. The majority of figures carry a spara based on that shown on the Oxford Brygos cup although others carry a spara of different construction based on examples recovered by archaeological excavation. The majority of the Persians wear composite cuirasses of a type quite close to the Greek equivalent with which we are familiar. In fact it seems probable that the Greek composite cuirass was inspired by oriental prototypes. Other Persians wear a different type of cuirass reminiscent of the mediaeval ‘jack’ in appearance, and presumably of a similar construction. Some of the sparabara have lost their spears and fight with swords of the kopis type. In contrast the Athenians are of a much more varied appearance. Unlike the mercenaries fighting on the Achaemenid side, each Athenian citizen was responsible for supplying his own equipment. Thus we find the hoplites wearing helmets of Corinthian, Attic, and even Illyrian types. Similarly there is no uniformity among the devices they bear on their shields. By and large the composite cuirass had replaced the muscle cuirass by the time of Marathon. It is possible that the Athenians left their cuirasses and greaves behind in camp once the decision had been made to charge the Persian line at the run. However there is no positive evidence to support this supposition, and indeed late Archaic vases show hoplites charging at the run in full armour. It was common practice at this period to wear ‘garters’ underneath the bottom edge of the greave to prevent chaffing of the skin. These would have been even more necessary at Marathon than was normally the case if the Athenian hoplites ran several hundred metres in greaves.
Pick up a copy of Campaign 108: Marathon 490 BC to read more about the battle. Campaign 188: Thermopylae 480 BC by Nic Fields
Artwork by Steve Noon The fall of Leonidas
The extract comes from Campaign 188: Thermopylae 480 BC by Nic Fields.
On the famous last day at Thermopylae the remaining Greeks did not wait passively for the assault. Instead, according to Herodotos (7.223.2), they moved out farther into the broader part of the pass than they had previously done. The fighting was furious, for when most of their ash-wood spears, the main weapon of the hoplite, were broken they began to use their swords. Worse still, it was then that Leonidas fell, and this would not only have left the Greeks temporarily leaderless, but probably have made the surviving Spartans refuse even to contemplate retreat until they had recovered their king’s body. Herodotos says there was ‘much shoving’ (7.225.1), until the Greeks recovered it, flinging the enemy back four times. The fall of the king was the catalyst for an even more ferocious display of valour on the part of the Spartans, conspicuous in their crimson tunics. Among the many Persians who fell fighting over such a valuable trophy were two half-brothers of Xerxes. The Spartans, blinded by the dust kicked up by thousands of feet on all sides, fought furiously in what seemed a sea of Persians, who fought with sagaris, akinakes, spear and bow. For an exhausting hour or so, the throat-parched troops continued to claw away at each other. The lawgiver Lykourgos, it is said by Xenophon, had ordered the Spartans to wear crimson cloaks and tunics, since these garments were ‘least effeminate and most warlike’, and to carry bronze-faced shields, since bronze was ‘quickest to polish and slow to tarnish’ (Lakedaimonion politeia 11.3). The Spartan military cloak, known as a tribo¯n or ‘worn cloak’, is often described as being ‘mean’ (phaulos), that is, thin as opposed to short. Indeed, austerity was the keynote to the Spartan lifestyle, and a Spartiate would visually emphasize his toughness by making use of a single cloak, summer and winter, allowed to wear thin and never washed. This particular article of his uniform was treasured above all else, so much so, if we are to believe Plutarch (Lykourgos 27.1), he would be buried without grave goods, but wrapped in his crimson cloak and crowned with an olive wreath. Of course, for purely practical reasons, the cloak was discarded before battle commenced and left behind in camp. Even so, as Plutarch (Moralia 238f) observes, the crimson-coloured tunic alone would have aroused terror in the inexperienced opponent and helped to disguise battle wounds. The tunic (chitÿn) itself could be a relatively thick woollen garment, though at this time it was generally becoming lighter and sometimes linen replaced wool. It was usually sleeveless, and extended from shoulder to mid thigh. While uniform, in the sense of a national military costume principally fashioned from cloth and codified according to regulations, is a comparatively modern concept, for Sparta, with its intimate relationship between social organization and military power, the adoption of distinctive dress went beyond the mere idea of looking different from one’s foes. For the strength of Sparta’s army lay not only in its professionalism but also in its formidable appearance; this was intentionally designed to strike terror into the hearts of Sparta’s enemies.
Read more about the history of this battle in Campaign 188: Thermopylae 480 BC.
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Министерство на отбраната може да се похвали с още една провалена обществена поръчка свързана с поддръжката на авиацията. Вчера, 11 април 2019 г., бе прекратена процедурата за ремонт на два учебно-тренировъчни самолета L-39ZA.
Днес, 11 април 2019 г. се проведе тържествена церемония, на която бяха връчени сертификатите от летателното учение „Европейски курс за усъвършенстване на тактическата подготовка на военно-транспортната авиация 19-2”(ETAP-C 19-2). Това съобщиха от ВВС.
Два дни, след като японски F-35 се разби в Тихия океан, изясняването на причините за инцидента не е близо, а разследващите ще се изправят пред сериозното предизвикателство по изваждане на останките на самолета от дълбините на океана. Това пише Reuters.
След пет удължавания на срока за подаване на оферти днес, 11 април 2019 г. бяха отворени заявленията за участие в процедурата за определяне на концесионер и възлагане на концесия за строителство на обект „Гражданско летище за обществено ползване София“ – публична държавна собственост. Това съобщиха от транспортното ведомство.
Lockheed Martin има възможност да по-бърза доставка на българските F-16 и първите доставки да станат факт в края на 2022 г. Това се казва в изявление на Джим Робинсън, директор Международно бизнес развитие за F-16 в Lockheed Martin, разпространено до медиите днес, 11 април 2019 г.
Празникът на авиацията и космонавтиката ще бъде отбелязан със събития из цялата страна, включително дни на отворените врати във военни бази и празнични програми. Това ще стане утре, 12 април 2019 г.
Премиерът Бойко Борисов заяви, че лично ще преговаря с президента на САЩ Доналд Тръмп за условията на сделката за F-16, но и в същото време каза, че не се меси в процеса и дори е забранил да му докладват за него. Това каза той днес, 12 април 2019 г. в Дубровник пред репортери.