Новини - литература и периодика - Архив 2015г.

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1. Simo Häyhä - The White Death - 2015-12-17 08:46:55
Today marks the 110th anniversary of the birth of Simo Häyhä, one of the most prolific snipers of all time. Over the course of the Winter War he reached a tally of 542 confirmed kills, many of which were achieved whilst looking down the iron sights of a Mosin Nagant.
The short biography below comes from Finland at War: The Winter War 1939-40 by Vesa Nenye, Peter Munter and Toni Wirtanen.
Corporal Simo ‘Simuna’ Häyhä, who served with the 6th Company, 34th Infantry Regiment, can lay claim to being the most lethal sniper ever to have lived.
Häyhä was the second youngest child of eight. Born on 17 December 1905 in the village of Kiiskisenkylä, he attended grammar school and helped run the family farm. His hobbies included skiing, shooting and hunting as well as Pesäpallo, the Finnish form of baseball.
At the age of 17, Häyhä joined the Civil Guard. He was already an expert marksman, winning competitions by hitting a small target at 150m range six times within one minute. From 1925 to 1927, he completed his national service in a bicycle battalion. Häyhä gained the rank of corporal upon completion of an NCO training course. In 1927, he underwent specialist sniper training.

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Simo Häyhä after being awarded the honorary rifle model 28
Source: Wikipedia

On the Kollaa front, he applied his craft using his old Civil Guard service rifle that he had brought with him to war. Although Häyhä did not keep track of his own achievements, his comrades did. Early in December, he managed to kill 51 enemy soldiers in just three days. Initially, even his closest superiors did not believe these numbers.
As this relentless kill rate continued, Lieutenant-Colonel Teittinen ordered an official observer to follow him. When Häyhä was close to his 200th kill and had just returned from dispatching a particularly troublesome enemy sniper, his promotion to the rank of junior sergeant was suggested.
The troops nicknamed Häyhä ‘the White Death’. As news of his deeds spread beyond Finland, a Swedish businessman, Eugen Johansson, gave a special rifle to him as a gift.
Häyhä preferred to use only the basic rifle sights as they would neither frost over, nor reflect sunlight like optic scopes would do. It also allowed him to lie flatter, thus offering a smaller target.
On 6 March 1940, while adopting a high-knee shooting position, Häyhä was shot in the face with an explosive bullet. The round that entered the top of his lip and pierced his left cheek was prohibited by international convention. Although the newspapers proclaimed ‘Simo is dead!’, Häyhä managed to recover, with the help of ten operations. He was prohibited from returning to front-line service and instead served his country by procuring horses for the military.

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Simo Häyhä photographed in the 1940s, with visible damage to his cheek
Source: Wikipedia
In an interview with Helsingin Sanomat magazine in 2001, Häyhä was asked how he felt about his role during the war: ‘I did what I was told to do, as well as I could. There would be no Finland if others would not have acted likewise.’
Häyhä’s tally of 542 confirmed kills had been achieved in a space of just 100 days. After the war, he returned to a life of farming and hunting. Häyhä passed away on 1 April 2002.
If you would like to read more about the Winter War then take a look at Finland at War: The Winter War 1939-40, available at a 20% discount until the end of December.
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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 19 дек 2015, 00:02

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1. An Illustrated Guide to Native American Tribes - 2015-12-18 08:10:21
Tuesday 15 December marked the 125th anniversary of the death of legendary Native American Chief Sitting Bull, and so we felt it would be fitting to end the week with a look at the history of some of North America's native people.
Warriors, 1760s-1790s
Extract taken from Men-at-Arms 467: North American Indian Tribes of the Great Lakes by Michael G. Johnson



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Illustration by Jonathan Smith
1: Shawnee warrior, c.1774.
The Shawnee lost their Kentucky hunting grounds after the 1768 Ft Stanwix treaty, but their scattered groups gathered in the Ohio country and vigorously resisted white encroachments from Virginia. Based on a sketch from life, this warrior wears a woollen trade blanket, possibly English; black buckskin leggings with quillwork decoration; and moccasins with ankle collars, typical of the Woodland tribes. His silver ear decorations might be either traded, or produced by Indian smiths. Note the saber-shaped wooden war club.
2: Kaskaskia warrior, 1796.
This leading sub-tribe of the Illinois confederacy suffered continuous wars with the Wisconsin tribes and the Iroquois, and lost great numbers from European-introduced diseases. Few were left by 1800, but a sketch from life in c.1796 shows a warrior with roached hair, ostrich feathers, a black-and-white headband with silver ornaments, silver ear-spools and armbands, a quilled knifecase, and an iron tomahawk. The last of the Kaskaskia joined the “Peoria” – remnants of several Illinois and Miami groups – and ultimately found a home in Oklahoma.
3: Great Lakes warrior, Pontiac War, 1763.
This warrior, from the coalition of Great Lakes tribes that rose against the British, wears a French military-style hat and coat. His green trade-cloth leggings are based on museum examples, showing the earliest appearance of ribbon appliqué work during the second half of the century – probably an influence from Indians further east and north. Note the quilled pouch, the belt, and the triangular porcupine-quilled knifecase at his neck.

Apache and Navajo c. 1860-90
Extract taken from Men-at-Arms 488: American Indian Tribes of the Southwest by Michael G. Johnson


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Illustrated by Jonathan Smith
1: Apache warrior, c. 1860.
This mounted warrior wears a buckskin jacket patterned after US military clothing but painted with traditional Apache symbols of power, as is his shield. Full-scale Apache hostilities with the Spanish ended in 1786 when the latter began attempting a pacification policy, but when this policy collapsed after Mexican independence in the 1820s the Apache resumed intensive raiding into Sonora. After 1853 hostilities with Anglo-Americans increased, continuing intermittently until Geronimo’s surrender in 1886.
2: Navajo warrior, c. 1860.
Close relatives of the Apache, the Navajo probably followed them into presentday northern New Mexico and Arizona, but they were to be more influenced by Pueblo culture, learning to weave textiles for clothing and acquiring some agriculture. They often joined Apache bands to raid Mexican and later American settlers, particularly during the Civil War, when US military posts were thinly manned. This warrior wears a cap made from a mountain lion’s skin, including the ears, to invoke the animal’s hunting skills. His shirt and trousers are of Mexican type, and his moccasin boots are of a type with the uppers attached to a large, hard sole above the foot imprint. Note his substantial combat-shield and metal-headed spear.
3: Navajo hunter, c. 1890.
About the time of their internment at Bosque Redondo in 1864–68 the Navajo learned the art of silver-smithing from Mexicans, and by the 1890s men and women were wearing “squash-blossom” necklaces and concha belts made from coin-silver. The hunter holds a bow, and wears high moccasin boots; his bandolier is made from commercial leather.
4: Western Apache woman, c. 1880.
She is holding a double saddlebag of buckskin decorated with cut-outs and red cloth. From a tumpline round her head she carries a tus – a basket caulked with piñon gum to carry water. The Western Apache were expert basket-makers, typically using thin strips of fiber, willow, leaves or grass wrapped around three rods and coiled into a continuous spiral. There were two distinct types: plaques, shallow dishes and ollas (storage baskets), and twined burden baskets and water-carriers.

Crazy Horse, White Bull, Noisy Walking and Antelope Woman at the Battle of Little Bighorn
Extract from Men-at-Arms 408: Warriors at the Little Bighorn 1876 by Richard Hook

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Illustration by Richard Hook
1: Despite the amount of information available on Crazy Horse he remains a man of mystery, and his appearance at the Little Bighorn still cannot be described with any certainty. The ledger drawings of Amos Bad Heart Bull provide the main reference for this figure; the drawings were approved and even directed by that artist’s uncles and father, all Little Bighorn veterans. Amos Bad Heart Bull’s drawings show Crazy Horse wearing a single eagle feather upright in his unbraided hair, which is described by Short Bull and Little Killer as unusually brown and wavy. Selvedge-edged trade cloth belted at his waist could be interpreted either as a small blanket, or more likely – as shown here – the ends of his breech clout pulled up and tucked under his cartridge belt. It is confusing that the pictographs all show Crazy Horse’s body painted with red spots on yellow, contrary to all descriptions that he painted himself with white spots representing hail, as portrayed here. Did Amos’s informants tell him that, contrary to other information, Crazy Horse’s paint was different on this day from that which he normally wore? – or, not having the luxury of opaque white paint available, did the artist take license by using colors other than described? The drawings do not show the calfskin cape often described. From this it might be concluded that it was worn at the Rosebud battle but not at the Little Bighorn. All the Amos Bad Heart Bull drawings show fully beaded moccasins, a stone-headed club, a rifle (shown here as a brass-tacked ‘Yellow Boy’ Winchester) and a pistol (shown here as a .44 Remington percussion revolver).
2: The main sources for this figure are White Bull’s pictographs showing himself at the Little Bighorn, and his own descriptions. His hair is unbraided, decorated with two upright eagle feathers. He wears a cloth shirt gathered by two cartridge belts, through which his beaded knife sheath is thrust. He wears no leggings; White Bull made a point in interviews of mentioning that he removed them between the Reno fight and Deep Ravine. A thong over his right shoulder supports his personal war medicine: hung from a rawhide loop are four buckskin pouches, a buffalo tail and an eagle feather. He carries a Winchester carbine and a captured holstered pistol and cartridge belt. White Bull’s horse has a scalp hanging from the rope bridle, and an eagle feather in its mane. It is of interest that White Bull drew himself after the battle, driving off captured horses with his horse now festooned with eagle feathers – probably ‘heraldry’ of his recent achievements.
3: Noisy Walking is shown wearing a cloth breech clout, Cheyenne buckskin leggings with beaded strips, and partially beaded moccasins. He is armed with a lance decorated with trade cloth and a stone-headed club. As described by Antelope Woman, a red cloth is tied around his neck so that he may be recognized by his aunt during the battle.
4: Antelope Woman is shown wearing typical women’s dress of this period. Over a patterned cloth dress is a shawl, gathered at the waist with a brass-tacked harness-leather belt, from which hang an awl case, a strike-a-light case and her knife sheath, all decorated with beadwork of typical Cheyenne designs. Her cheeks and hair parting are painted red. Her jewelry consists of German silver earrings and bracelets. Note that she wears beaded hard-soled moccasins and beaded leggings. She holds a wooden quirt with a beaded wrist strap.

The Invasion of Huronia, mid-17th Century
Extract from Men-at-Arms 395: Tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy by Michael Johnson


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Illustration by Jonathan Smith
1: Warrior painted and tattooed, armed with a matchlock musket.
2: Winter scout, wearing snowshoes.
3: Warrior stripped for battle, with bow and arrows.
Every young Iroquois male was expected to be a warrior, and war captains tested their bravery. The departure of a war party was usually preceded by feasting and dancing on a “dance ground” around a red-painted post, which the warriors struck with their weapons. Iroquois did not usually wage war in wintertime when the leaves were off the trees and it was difficult to find cover. Before iron arrowheads, metal tomahawks and guns arrived in Indian hands, warriors used a kind of body armor made from wooden strips laced together, and extra protection was provided by huge shields. The principal weapons were the bow and the war club. Warriors on the trail carried a bag of roasted cornmeal. Iroquois braves were heavily tattooed and many painted their faces half-red and half-black. Scalps were taken from the fallen; and prisoners were brought back to the villages. These captives were sometimes adopted by females, thus replacing the casualties of warfare; but more often they were tortured for several days, burned alive, scalped, beheaded and disembowelled. Such was the traditional nature of the wars that intermittently raged between the Iroquois and the four tribes that formed the Huron confederacy. The French control of the fur trade throughout the Great Lakes via Huron middlemen, and the depletion of their own hunting grounds, was the prime reason for the Iroquois invasion of Huron territory in the spring of 1649. Jesuit priests who had already established missions amongst the Hurons wrote yearly reports to their Paris headquarters (published as The Relations); these recorded Huron culture, and the series of defeats due to which the Jesuits position became untenable. Many Hurons perished at the hands of the Iroquois; some took refuge amongst neighboring tribes; some were adopted by the Iroquois, particularly by the Seneca; some accompanied their French missionaries to Quebec; and the remainder joined the Petun (now called Tionontati) and moved to the Detroit and Ohio country, where they became known as Wyandot (Wendat).

Warrior Societies
Extract taken from Men-at-Arms 344: Tribes of the Sioux Nation by Michael Johnson

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Illustration by Jonathan Smith
1: Omaha Society, c1890.
Amongst the Missouri River tribes such as the Omaha, Ponca and Pawnee, warrior societies wore distinctive attire usually consisting of a porcupine and deer hair roach (headdress), a bustle or ‘Crow Belt’, and a circle and trailer of the feathers of birds of prey – whose scavenging of the field after battle provided the symbolic connection with warfare. From the top of the bustle two feathers projected, representing slain warriors – one a friend, the other an enemy. The belt which secured the bustle behind the waist also held braids of plaited sweetgrass – hence the popular name of the characteristic dancing style, the ‘Grass Dance’. During the 1860s these ceremonies were adopted from the Omaha tribe by the Western Sioux, who named it the Omaha Dance or Society. In the late 19th century its function became largely social and it was popular during Fourth of July celebrations. It has formed the basis for the continuing male powwow dancing up to modern times. In early reservation days dancers sometimes used long whistles, the open end carved to represent a bird’s head. The Crow Owners Society members wore similar bustles of feathers from birds of prey.
2: Miwatani or Mandan Society, c1870.
An important military society of the Teton Sioux, this is said to have originated long ago with a man who dreamed of an owl, in consequence of which its members used only owl feathers to fletch their arrows. At meetings each member carried a rattle made of the dew claws of deer fastened to a beaded stick, as used in many Sioux dances. Warrior society sashes were sometimes pinned to the ground in battle so that there would be no retreat. Quirts notched and carved in a zig-zag pattern to represent lightning bolts were used by officers of several military societies.
3: Strong Heart Society, c1880.
The Strong (or Brave) Heart Society was probably founded by Sitting Bull (our model here), Gall and Crow King. They wore headdresses consisting of buckskin skullcaps covered with fringes of ermine skin, split curved buffalo horns and owl feathers. Some members carried ring-shaped rawhide rattles, and lances decorated with a row of eagle feathers attached to a strip of red trade cloth extending the whole length of the shaft. In their dances they adopted a bobbing, up-and-down movement. Strong Heart Society shields were usually painted with an eagle design and trimmed with eagle feathers.

If you'd like to read more take a look at Men-at-Arms 467: North American Indian Tribes of the Great Lakes, Men-at-Arms 488: American Indian Tribes of the Southwest, Men-at-Arms 408: Warriors at the Little Bighorn 1876, Men-at-Arms 395: Tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy and Men-at-Arms 344: Tribes of the Sioux Nation.
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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 20 дек 2015, 12:00

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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 21 дек 2015, 00:02

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1. Sunday Photo - William Charles Scurry and the Anzac Evacuations - 2015-12-20 08:39:02
On 20 December 1915 the last ANZAC troops were evacuated from Gallipoli after spending almost 8 months on the peninsula. They covered their escape in a number of ways, including the use of William Scurry’s self-firing ‘drip rifle’. Water would drip down into a bully beef tin attached to the trigger of a rifle which would fire when the water reached a certain weight, creating the illusion that there were still soldiers present in the Allied trenches.
The photograph below is of Australian soldier William Charles Scurry, the inventor of this ingenious device.

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Image courtesy of the Australian War Museum
If you’d like to read more about the Gallipoli campaign take a look at Gallipoli: Command under Fire, available at a 20% discount until the end of December. For more information on ANZAC infantrymen check out WAR 155: ANZAC Infantryman 1914-15.
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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 21 дек 2015, 12:00

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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 22 дек 2015, 00:02

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1. 70th Anniversary of George S. Patton's Death - 2015-12-21 09:33:54
On 21 December 1945, exactly 70 years ago, General George S. Patton passed away following an automobile accident. Widely regarded as the US Army's finest practitioner of mechanized warfare, Patton's impressive military career culminated in his succeses in the European Theater of World War II.
The extract below comes from Command 3: George S. Patton by Steven J. Zaloga. Patton has just arrived in France following the D-Day landings and his men are ready to advance against the Germans.
The Third Army’s mission was part of the original Overlord plans to expand the lodgement area westward towards Brittany. The ultimate objective was to secure additional ports in Brittany, notably in the Quiberon Bay area and the port of Brest to assist in the Allied logistics build-up. Patton’s drive started on August 1 and was spearheaded by the 4th and 6th Armored Divisions, which made some of the most rapid advances of the war, pushing past weak German defenses at Avranches and breaking into Brittany at a lightning pace. The 4th Armored Division reached Rennes and the 6th Armored Division was soon on the gates of Brest. An essential element in the Third Army’s advance was the sterling air support provided by Otto Wayland’s XIX Tactical Air Force, one of the classic examples of air-ground cooperation during the war.

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George S. Patton as a Lieutenant General
Source: Wikipedia

In spite of the spectacular advance, Patton was unsettled by the conduct of the campaign and began to question its strategic objectives. His old friend John S. Wood, commander of the 4th Armored Division, egged him on arguing that the Brittany campaign was an insignificant sideshow. While ports were certainly needed, the Germans had shown at Cherbourg in June that they would demolish the ports before their capture, rendering them useless for months. Furthermore, the Brittany ports were away from the main direction of the Allied advance, adding precious miles to every ounce of supplies that would be delivered through these harbors. If Brittany was an irrelevant objective, Patton at the same time sensed the real opportunity. The German 7. Armee (AOK 7) was trapped and on the run after Cobra, and there was a void in German defenses on the approaches to the Seine River and Paris. A rapid rush to the Seine could help bag German forces in a deep envelopment, while at the same time securing the Normandy lodgment area months earlier than anticipated. Patton argued his case with Bradley and Eisenhower, and won Montgomery’s support as well.
The reorientation east was authorized on August 3: Middleton’s VIII Corps remained in Brittany to finish the mission against the Breton ports while Wade Haislip’s recently arrived XV Corps, spearheaded by the 5th Armored Division, was directed towards Le Mans under Patton’s command; Walton Walker’s XX Corps and Manton Eddy’s XII Corps were to form the southern shoulder of the great mechanized race.

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Patton during a parade in Los Angeles
Source: Wikipedia
The Wehrmacht was deeply alarmed by the threat posed by this new drive, and attempted to split Hodges’ First Army and Patton’s Third Army by a Panzer counteroffensive towards Avranches and the sea, codenamed Operation Lüttich. The German attack was stopped cold by US infantry at Mortain and proved to be a catastrophic blunder. By shifting their modest Panzer reserves into the American sector, the Germans had fatally weakened the defenses facing Montgomery’s 21st Army Group. The Canadian First Army was soon crashing down toward Falaise, and AOK 7 was on the verge of encirclement. While this drama played itself out in the fields of Normandy, Patton’s forces were racing eastward against weak German resistance. The tactical situation was a case study for cavalry exploitation, and Patton’s bold and risky tactical style was ideally suited to exploit it. Patton urged on his motorized and mechanized spearheads and told them to ignore their flanks. The advance of Hodges’ First Army covered the northern flanks, while the Loire River offered a defensive shoulder that could be patrolled by Weyland’s XIX Tactical Air Force serving as an airborne cavalry flank guard. The Wehrmacht attempted to shift elements of AOK 1 from the Atlantic coast to block Patton, but Patton’s forces were simply much faster. The cities west of Paris fell in rapid succession, including the cathedral cities of Chartres and Orléans, and Paris itself beckoned.
If you are interested in reading more then take a look at Command 3: George S. Patton by Steven J. Zaloga.
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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 22 дек 2015, 18:00

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1. Focke-Wulf Ta  152 - 2015-12-22 12:29:26
The events of World War 2 proved beyond any doubt that the strategic bombing campaign greatly contributed to the Allies’ ultimate victory over Nazi Germany.
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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 23 дек 2015, 18:00

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1. The Battleship SMS Baden - 2015-12-23 10:59:13
The second and last to be completed of a class of 4 “super dreadnoughts”, SMS Baden represented the culmination of German battleship development during the First World War.
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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 24 дек 2015, 12:00

FineScale Modeler Newsletter - December 23, 2015 from FineScale Magazine (Wed, 23 Dec 2015 21:31:33 +0000 (GMT))
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SUBSCRIBE PRINT | RENEW | DIGITAL | GIFT Tips Database | Kit Reviews | Products Directory | Forums | Shop February 2016 issue
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You'll Dig This MiG!
The February issue of FineScale Modeler soars onto newsstands Jan. 5! It includes 6 new kit reviews, as well as essential feature stories:
Form & Figure: Basics of clothing
Airbrushing and Finishing: Simple yet effective rust
Czech it out! Eduard's multiple-choice MiG-21MF
Winterizing Tamiya's SU-122
Search and rescue an Albatross
Drawing weld seams on ships
Show Gallery: Australian Model Expo 2015
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Newest Kits from Dragon Models! Now Available For Pre-Order! Early January Shipping!
DRA-3562 1/35 M60A2 Starship - Smart Kit.
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FSM New Product Rundown
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In this episode, Elizabeth Nash and Aaron Skinner take a look at MPC's big Eagle, Kinetic's 1/48 scale AMX-T, a resin M-60P APC from Triglav Models, and Tamiya's Japanese destroyer Kagero.
For kit reviews and more great product coverage, check out the February 2016 FineScale Modeler, on newsstands January 5! Watch This Week's New Product Rundown »
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Enter FSM's "Star Wars" Scale Modeling Contest!
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Use the Force to show FineScale Modeler your best "Star Wars" models!

Since MPC released four kits in 1977, models of the spaceships, droids, and characters have been a big part of the "Star Wars" universe. We're looking for your best builds of those, whether it's a 35-year-old MPC X-wing, the latest Bandai creation, or even a scratchbuilt Mon Calamari cruiser. Fan favorites will be chosen for a gallery in an upcoming issue of FineScale Modeler magazine.

Contest runs now through January 4. Click here to enter your "Star Wars" models! »
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February Online Gallery
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Every month we publish a new gallery of reader-submitted photos at FineScale.com. The February photo gallery features 19 models, including a Tamiya's 1/35 scale Tiger I with a "just off the assembly line" look, Revell's 1/110 scale "Everything is 'Go'" Mercury/Atlas complex, a realistic Biliken 1/6 scale Batman "Pose A" vinyl figure, and much more!
You too can submit digital photos — preferably high-resolution images — for the printed magazine's Reader Gallery or online photo gallery at Contribute.Kalmbach.com. When you submit a photo of your model, please include the following information within the "Comments" box: manufacturer, model, scale, modifications, paint used, and your reason for choosing the model. You an even send us a Microsoft Word document describing your images.
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Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България
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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 26 дек 2015, 00:02

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Blog

1. The Book Diaries - The Cuxhaven Raid - 2015-12-25 07:10:20
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The Cuxhaven Raid
Merry Christmas. As today is a key anniversary in the world of early naval aviation, I thought I’d mark the occasion with a Book Diaries on the subject.
Santa Claus was not the only one making aerial deliveries on Christmas Day in 1914. Exactly 101 years ago, the Royal Navy conducted an air raid against the German fleet at Cuxhaven. The British presents were the wartime equivalent of lumps of coal: bombs and bullets. The Germans could not even play with these gifts. They were expended upon delivery.
It was not a big raid. Only seven aircraft participated: three Short Type 74s, two Short Type 81s, and two Short 135s. Each aircraft carried three 20-pound bombs. But it was the first time the Royal Navy launched an air strike against a ground base using ship-borne aircraft. (Although it was not the first-ever carrier strike against land. That occurred a few months earlier in August. A Maurice Farman seaplane, based on the Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya bombed German and Austrian warships in Tsingtao. )
The aircraft were launched from the seaplane carriers Engadine, Empress, and Riviera. All started life as fast (for 1905–14) cross-Channel ferries. Engadine and Riviera could make 20 knots. Empress could do 18. This meant they could keep up with the battle fleet.
The three were requisitioned by the Admiralty at the war’s onset and hastily converted to carry seaplanes. In 1914 this meant adding booms to handle seaplanes and canvas hangers in which to shelter them. (The canvas shelters were replaced with metal structures in 1915.)

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HMS Riviera in 1914 (note canvas shelter)
The raid’s primary goal was blinding Germany’s High Seas Fleet. When Tirpitz built his navy he deliberately neglected cruisers to maximize his dreadnought battleship numbers. Cruisers were almost as expensive as dreadnoughts, but not nearly as impressive. When World War I started the High Seas Fleet was caught short. The cruisers could screen the fleet or scout, but there were not enough to do both. Tirpitz turned to Zeppelins for fleet scouting.

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HMS Empress in 1914 (after permanent hangar added)
The Germans did not have that many Zeppelins. In August 1914, the German Navy had exactly one Zeppelin. Even by December 1915, the navy had only 15 Zeppelins in commission. Zeppelins also required large storage sheds. The problem was reaching them. The only way aircraft could get close enough was by sea. Hence the use of Britain’s three seaplane carriers.
The aircraft were launched in fog, with predictable results. The aircraft quickly became separated. One airplane actually found the German fleet – and promptly departed after the German warships opened up on it. Another sighted and attacked a German destroyer. Another spotted the German cruisers Stralsund and Graudenz.
Others wandered around lost, eventually jettisoning their bombs to lighten their load. The Germans reported one 20-pound bomb struck a Zeppelin shed. It is believed it was one of the jettisoned bombs, a lucky, accidental hit.
Of the seven aircraft used, only two returned to Britain, recovered by the seaplane carriers. One ditched near the Netherlands, its crew recovered by a Dutch trawler. Three others landed near British submarines. The planes were destroyed, but the crews saved.
The High Seas Fleet left the three seaplane carriers, and their covering cruisers and destroyers unmolested. As the British fleet withdrew it was attacked unsuccessfully by German Zeppelins and naval floatplanes.

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Loading seaplanes on Engadine and Riviera prior to raid
The raid’s best-known participant was Erskine Childers. The author of spy thriller The Riddle of the Sands was a lieutenant in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve in 1914. He flew aboard one of the raiding aircraft as an observer.
The Cuxhaven Raid may have accomplished little. Regardless it was the ancestor of the great carrier strikes of World War II such as Taranto, Pearl Harbor, or the massed Allied carrier raids on the Japanese home islands.
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Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България
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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 28 дек 2015, 00:02

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Blog

1. Sunday Photo - Japanese aircraft carrier Hōshō - 2015-12-27 08:01:04
On 27 December 1922 the Japanese aircraft carrier Hōshō became the world’s first commissioned ship that was designed and built specifically as an aircraft carrier. It was initially used for testing, providing the Imperial Japanese Navy with valuable lessons in early carrier air operations.
In later years Hōshō participated in the Shanghai Incident and the opening stages of the Sino-Japanese War, as well as participating in the Battle of Midway during World War II.
The photograph below shows Hōshō as completed in December 1922.

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Source: Wikipedia
Osprey offers a wide range of books looking at Naval subjects. Click here to view our entire range.
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Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България
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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 29 дек 2015, 00:02

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Blog

1. Osprey's Quiz of the Year 2015 - 2015-12-28 08:14:04
With 2015 rapidly coming to a close we thought it would be fun to put together a quiz for you. Here are 12 questions to test your knowledge of military history, each relating to a month of the year.




Can't see the quiz? Click here for an alternate version.
Let us know how you did in the comments section below!
And for those who are interested here are the books the questions were drawn from.
January - Finland at War: The Winter War 1939-40
February - Weapon 41: The Flamethrower
March - Campaign 286: Catalaunian Fields AD 451
April - Campaign 279: Appomattox 1865
May - Essential Histories 54: The Wars of the Roses
June - Command 1: Napoleon Bonaparte
July - Raid 49: Stirling's Desert Triumph
August - Campaign 285: Lewes and Evesham 1264-65
September - Campaign 270: Operation Market-Garden 1944 (1)
October - Command 8: Henry V
November - Campaign 287: Tippecanoe 1811
December - Gallipoli: Command Under Fire
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Мнение от Клуб Стендов Моделизъм България » 30 дек 2015, 12:00

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